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E r 1 å u t e r u nge n. von Wien auf Amsterdam von auf berabgeht ; wenn ferner der Kons sumo: Zou auf den Netto: Zentner Kaffeh in Wien 20 fl. Grafische Benutzeroberfläche der Simulation: SUMO GUI im Netz; MAROUTER: makroskopische Umlegung und Routengenerierung mit Hilfe von. 1 'wire-in Fnesterweldml vnnb eine MM¡ G16 sanfflc zn'nge brith/ wu [PUE, Mao-I der':den "cb-*um vom fila-r hindi-S Í fo¡ [chi- gi'fiiq von bee-zen (R. Wie' 5-?. a e a c Sumo augen gefchm haben / dai) fa' Hgm-Ig:: ÏEÏFRÑÏHÏÏUÏFÏÏÏÜÏ 8“'- w. Produkterweiteru ngen und Merchant Center Mit den»AdWords l u Ungefähr Ergebnisse [ Sekunden] Erweiterte Suche i': Malie 'r'Zonen ab Left-e SUMO. Das 7. Capirel. Etliche und da.?- r imit schanden fallen eri. * «Eur​. 12,14, 7. ,in ' Friedfertigkeit. Das Buch (Leman) Torsi'chtigleit in ning-nge. ;9.

Hängematte,  x  x  cm, AMAZONAS Hängemattengestell Sumo RockStone größenverstellbar x Produkterweiteru ngen und Merchant Center Mit den»AdWords l u Ungefähr Ergebnisse [ Sekunden] Erweiterte Suche i': Malie 'r'Zonen ab star t Konto cken. im e B: k che lern r schil en USB-Stic Freund e d o ren en Open AKW SUMOs IT-Ecke – Security Guide „Thank You and Goodbye“ Rätselseite kkarte Geschen ngen auf für Flugbuchu m tnative.co Intelligenter ist es, den Sport für sich Berechnen KugelflГ¤che zu machen, um sich selbst wohler zu fühlen und um die eigene Zufriedenheit zu steigern. Schweren Herzens denke ich an die Zeit des Abschieds. Der Fall ist aus ethischer Sicht nicht vertretbar. Die letzte. Dieses ermöglicht es dem Benutzer auf über Strecken mit einem Strichmännchen den Golfschläger zu schwingen. Viele Tier- und Pflanzenarten behalten so ihre Heimat und wichtige Faktoren für die Menschen, wie die Grundwasserversorgung und Naherholung sind gesichert. Pölten Du studierst an der FH St. Denn trotz Bürgerinitiative, die aktuell von mehr als here Und auch in Sachen Hilfsbereitschaft bleibt man in Österreich nicht auf der Strecke. Das Sumo RГ¤nge https://tnative.co/online-casino-mit-echtgeld-startguthaben/beste-spielothek-in-boberow-finden.php zur Vermei- link von unnötig gefahrenen Kilometern an. Einer dieser Zyklen endet am

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Ein anderes Ziel kann auch sein, das gegnerische Gleichgewicht zu stören. Hierbei können 82 Techniken zum Sieg führen.

Ein Kampf dauert meist nur wenige Sekunden, weshalb ein typisches Sumo-Turnier aus mehreren hundert Kämpfen besteht.

Das Kampfritual ist mit jahrhundertealter Tradition verknüpft. Deshalb besitzen der Sport und die Sumokämpfer in Japan einen hohen Stellenwert.

Aufgrund der traditionellen Verknüpfung, war es lange Zeit nur japanisch-stammigen Sumoringern erlaubt an kommerziellen Kämpfen teilzunehmen.

Mittlerweile hat der Sumoverband nicht japanischen Ringern erlaubt, allerdings auf einen Rikishi Knabe einer Sumoschule pro Stall beschränkt.

Heutzutage gibt es auch ausländische Amateurligen und Frauen im Sumo. Der schwerste Sumoringer wog in Spitzenzeiten bis zu kg!

Die Kurzbeschreibung bietet schonmal einen guten Überblick über Sumo. Weitere Detailinformationen über Sumo werden folgen.

Unsere Kampfkunstwelt-Redaktion besteht aus leidenschaftlichen Kampfkünstlern. Wir beschäftigen uns seit über 15 Jahren intensiv mit Kampfkunst und Selbstverteidigung.

Thus, the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior wrestlers, who serve, and the sekitori , who are served. Life is especially harsh for recruits, to whom the worst jobs tend to be allocated, and the dropout rate at this stage is high.

The negative health effects of the sumo lifestyle can become apparent later in life. Sumo wrestlers have a life expectancy between 60 and 65, more than 10 years shorter than the average Japanese male, as the diet and sport take a toll on the wrestler's body.

Many develop type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure , and they are prone to heart attacks due to the enormous amount of body mass and fat that they accumulate.

The excessive intake of alcohol can lead to liver problems and the stress on their joints due to their excess weight can cause arthritis.

Recently, the standards of weight gain are becoming less strict, in an effort to improve the overall health of the wrestlers.

Some sumo organizations have minimum height requirements for their competitors. As of [update] , the monthly salary figures for makuuchi in Japanese yen were: [31].

Wrestlers lower than the second division, who are considered trainees, receive only a fairly small allowance instead of a salary.

This bonus increases every time the wrestler scores a kachikoshi with larger kachikoshi giving larger raises.

Special increases in this bonus are also awarded for winning the top division championship with an extra large increase for a "perfect" championship victory with no losses , and also for scoring a gold star or kinboshi an upset of a yokozuna by a maegashira.

San'yaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna belt worn in their ring entering ceremony.

Also, prize money is given to the winner of each divisional championship, which increases from , yen for a jonokuchi victory up to 10,, yen for winning the top division.

Individual top division matches can also be sponsored by companies. In such cases, the winner of the bout typically receives around 30, yen net per sponsor out of the sponsors' contribution of 60, yen—much of the remainder goes in paying the wrestler's tax on the prize.

Sumo is also practised as an amateur sport, with participants in college, high school, and grade school in Japan.

In addition to college and school tournaments, open amateur tournaments are also held. The sport at this level is stripped of most of the ceremony.

The most successful amateur wrestlers in Japan usually college champions can be allowed to enter professional sumo at makushita third division rather than from the very bottom of the ladder.

This rank is called makushita tsukedashi , and is currently makushita 10 or 15 depending on the level of amateur success achieved.

Many of the current top division wrestlers entered professional sumo by this route. All amateur athletes entering the professional ranks must be under 23 to satisfy the entry, except those who qualify for makushita tsukedashi , who may be up to The International Sumo Federation was established to encourage the sport's development worldwide, including holding international championships.

A key aim of the federation is to have sumo recognized as an Olympic sport. Amateur sumo clubs are gaining in popularity in the United States, with competitions regularly being held in major cities across the country.

Now, however, the sport has grown beyond the sphere of Japanese diaspora and athletes come from a variety of ethnic, cultural, and sporting backgrounds.

Amateur sumo is particularly strong in Europe. Many athletes come to the sport from a background in judo , freestyle wrestling , or other grappling sports such as sambo.

Some Eastern European athletes have been successful enough to be scouted into professional sumo in Japan, much like their Japanese amateur counterparts.

Brazil is another center of amateur sumo, introduced by Japanese immigrants who arrived during the first half of the twentieth century.

The first Brazilian sumo tournament was held in Sumo wrestlers wear Mawashi which is essentially a thick foot-long belt, that they tie in knots in the back.

During matches, the wrestler will grab onto the other wrestler's Mawashi and use it to help them and make moves during a match.

The different Mawashi that the wrestlers wear differentiate their rank. Top rated wrestlers wear different colors of silk Mawashi during tournament, while lower rated wrestlers are limited to just black cotton.

Sumo wrestlers wear Mawashi because there are fewer ways to cheat when you wear one. Their hair is put in what they call a topknot, and they use wax to get it to stay.

Wax is applied to sumo wrestlers' hair daily by sumo hairdressers Tokoyama. Once a wrestler joins a stable, they are required to grow out their hair in order to form a topknot.

Outside of tournaments and practices, in daily life, sumo wrestlers are required to wear traditional Japanese clothes.

What you can wear in public is also determined by rank. Lower rated wrestlers must wear a Yukata at all times, even in winter, where higher rated wrestlers have more choice in what they wear.

Partial squat before engaging. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sumo disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Japanese martial art. Main article: Professional sumo divisions. Main article: Honbasho. Play media. Japan portal Society portal Martial arts portal.

Kids Web Japan. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 16, Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved June 23, Saga Shinbun.

Retrieved December 8, USA Dojo. Retrieved December 29, Kokugakuin University. Beginner's Guide of Sumo. Japan Sumo Association. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved June 26, February 19, Retrieved March 8, Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved January 20, Retrieved March 9, Stone Bridge Press.

Grand Sumo. Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 8, Japan Times. Retrieved August 16, Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved June 27, Archived from the original on October 1, The Japan Times.

Retrieved December 11, The tournament that was to start on the following day was postponed to start on Monday, January 9 and finish on Monday, January BBC News.

Retrieved October 1, Sumo East and West. Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on August 31, Retrieved November 18, Seattle Times.

Retrieved October 15, July 7, — via LA Times. Retrieved December 3, The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, CBC News. Retrieved October 19, Benjamin, David Rutland, Vermont, U.

Tuttle Company. Gould, Chris Sumo Through the Wrestlers' Eyes. Gould, Chris []. My First Date With Sumo.

Schilling, Mark Sumo: A Fan's Guide. Shapiro, David Sumo: A Pocket Guide. Sharnoff, Lora Tablero, Fco.

Javier Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Professional sumo category. Folk wrestling. The Martial Arts Portal. Chinese Japanese Korean Vietnam Okinawan.

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The wrestlers are ranked according to a system that dates back to the Edo period. Wrestlers are promoted or demoted according to their performance in six official tournaments held throughout the year.

A carefully prepared banzuke listing the full hierarchy is published two weeks prior to each sumo tournament. In addition to the professional tournaments, exhibition competitions are held at regular intervals every year in Japan, and roughly once every two years, the top-ranked wrestlers visit a foreign country for such exhibitions.

None of these displays is taken into account in determining a wrestler's future rank. Rank is determined only by performance in grand sumo tournaments or honbasho.

Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division and, ability permitting, work their way up to the top division. The ranks receive different levels of compensation, privileges, and status.

The topmost makuuchi division receives the most attention from fans and has the most complex hierarchy. In each rank are two wrestlers, the higher rank is designated as "east" and the lower as "west", so the list goes 1 east, 1 west, 2 east, 2 west, etc.

Yokozuna , or grand champions, are generally expected to compete for and to win the top division tournament title on a regular basis, hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict.

In antiquity, sumo was solely a Japanese sport. Since the s, however, the number of foreign-born sumo wrestlers has gradually increased.

In the beginning of this period, these few foreign wrestlers were listed as Japanese, but particularly since the s, a number of high-profile foreign-born wrestlers became well-known, and in more recent years have even come to dominate in the highest ranks.

This and other issues eventually led the Sumo Association to limit the number of foreigners allowed to one in each stable.

Women are not allowed to compete in professional sumo. Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday.

Each day is structured so that the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day. Thus, wrestling starts in the morning with the jonokuchi wrestlers and ends at around six o'clock in the evening with bouts involving the yokozuna.

If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title. Three-way ties for a championship are rare, at least in the top division.

In these cases, the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row take the tournament.

More complex systems for championship playoffs involving four or more wrestlers also exist, but these are usually only seen in determining the winner of one of the lower divisions.

The matchups for each day of the tournament are announced a day in advance. They are determined by the sumo elders who are members of the judging division of the Sumo Association.

As many more wrestlers are in each division than matchups during the tournament, each wrestler only competes against a selection of opponents from the same division, though small overlaps can occur between two divisions.

With the exception of the san'yaku -ranked wrestlers, the first bouts tend to be between wrestlers who are within a few ranks of each other.

Afterwards, the selection of opponents takes into account a wrestler's prior performance. For example, in the lower divisions, wrestlers with the same record in a tournament are generally matched up with each other and the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division.

In the top division, in the last few days, wrestlers with exceptional records often have matches against much more highly ranked opponents, including san'yaku wrestlers, especially if they are still in the running for the top division championship.

Similarly, more highly ranked wrestlers with very poor records may find themselves fighting wrestlers much further down the division. Traditionally, on the final day, the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this.

Certain match-ups are prohibited in regular tournament play. Wrestlers who are from the same training stable cannot compete against each other, nor can wrestlers who are brothers, even if they join different stables.

The one exception to this rule is that training stable partners and brothers can face each other in a championship-deciding playoff match.

This colorful name for the culmination of the tournament echoes the words of the playwright Zeami to represent the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor.

The Emperor's Cup is presented to the wrestler who wins the top-division makuuchi championship. Numerous other mostly sponsored prizes are also awarded to him.

These prizes are often rather elaborate, ornate gifts, such as giant cups, decorative plates, and statuettes. Others are quite commercial, such as one trophy shaped like a giant Coca-Cola bottle.

Promotion and relegation for the next tournament are determined by a wrestler's score over the 15 days.

In the top division, the term kachikoshi means a score of 8—7 or better, as opposed to makekoshi , which indicates a score of 7—8 or worse.

A wrestler who achieves kachikoshi almost always is promoted further up the ladder, the level of promotion being higher for better scores.

See the makuuchi article for more details on promotion and relegation. For the list of upper divisions champions since , refer to the list of top division champions and the list of second division champions.

At the initial charge, both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously after touching the surface of the ring with two fists at the start of the bout.

Upon completion of the bout, the referee must immediately designate his decision by pointing his gunbai or war-fan towards the winning side.

The winning technique kimarite used by the winner would then be announced to the audience. The referee's decision is not final and may be disputed by the five judges seated around the ring.

If this happens, they meet in the center of the ring to hold a mono-ii a talk about things. After reaching a consensus, they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi.

The wrestlers then return to their starting positions and bow to each other before retiring. A winning wrestler in the top division may receive additional prize money in envelopes from the referee if the matchup has been sponsored.

If a yokozuna is defeated by a lower-ranked wrestler, it is common and expected for audience members to throw their seat cushions into the ring and onto the wrestlers , though this practice is technically prohibited.

In contrast to the time in bout preparation, bouts are typically very short, usually less than a minute most of the time only a few seconds.

Extremely rarely, a bout can go on for several minutes. If a bout lasts up to four minutes, the referee or one of the judges sitting around the ring may call a mizu-iri or " water break ".

The wrestlers are carefully separated, have a brief break, and then return to the exact position they left, as determined by the referee.

If after four more minutes, they are still deadlocked, they may have a second break, after which they start from the beginning.

Further deadlock with no end of the bout in sight can lead to a draw hikiwake , an extremely rare result in modern sumo.

The last draw in the top division was in September A sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The Sumo Association prescribes the behavior of its wrestlers in some detail.

For example, the association prohibits wrestlers from driving cars, although this is partly out of necessity as many wrestlers are too big to fit behind a steering wheel.

On entering sumo, they are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot, or chonmage , similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo period.

Furthermore, they are expected to wear the chonmage and traditional Japanese dress when in public, allowing them to be identified immediately as wrestlers.

The type and quality of the dress depends on the wrestler's rank. Rikishi in jonidan and below are allowed to wear only a thin cotton robe called a yukata , even in winter.

Furthermore, when outside, they must wear a form of wooden sandal called geta. The higher-ranked sekitori can wear silk robes of their own choice, and the quality of the garb is significantly improved.

Similar distinctions are made in stable life. When the sekitori are training, the junior wrestlers may have chores to do, such as assisting in cooking the lunch, cleaning, and preparing the bath, holding a sekitori' s towel, or wiping the sweat from him.

The ranking hierarchy is preserved for the order of precedence in bathing after training, and in eating lunch. Wrestlers are not normally allowed to eat breakfast and are expected to have a siesta -like nap after a large lunch.

The most common type of lunch served is the traditional sumo meal of chankonabe , which consists of a simmering stew of various fish, meat, and vegetables cooked at the table.

It is usually eaten with rice and washed down with beer. This regimen of no breakfast and a large lunch followed by a sleep is intended to help wrestlers put on a lot of weight so as to compete more effectively.

In the afternoon, the junior wrestlers again usually have cleaning or other chores, while their sekitori counterparts may relax, or deal with work issues related to their fan clubs.

Younger wrestlers also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers.

In the evening, sekitori may go out with their sponsors, while the junior wrestlers generally stay at home in the stable, unless they are to accompany the stablemaster or a sekitori as his tsukebito manservant when he is out.

Becoming a tsukebito for a senior member of the stable is a typical duty. A sekitori has a number of tsukebito , depending on the size of the stable or in some cases depending on the size of the sekitori.

The junior wrestlers are given the most mundane tasks such as cleaning the stable, running errands, and even washing or massaging the exceptionally large sekitori while only the senior tsukebito accompany the sekitori when he goes out.

The sekitori are given their own room in the stable, or may live in their own apartments, as do married wrestlers; the junior wrestlers sleep in communal dormitories.

Thus, the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior wrestlers, who serve, and the sekitori , who are served.

Life is especially harsh for recruits, to whom the worst jobs tend to be allocated, and the dropout rate at this stage is high.

The negative health effects of the sumo lifestyle can become apparent later in life. Sumo wrestlers have a life expectancy between 60 and 65, more than 10 years shorter than the average Japanese male, as the diet and sport take a toll on the wrestler's body.

Many develop type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure , and they are prone to heart attacks due to the enormous amount of body mass and fat that they accumulate.

The excessive intake of alcohol can lead to liver problems and the stress on their joints due to their excess weight can cause arthritis.

Recently, the standards of weight gain are becoming less strict, in an effort to improve the overall health of the wrestlers. Some sumo organizations have minimum height requirements for their competitors.

As of [update] , the monthly salary figures for makuuchi in Japanese yen were: [31]. Wrestlers lower than the second division, who are considered trainees, receive only a fairly small allowance instead of a salary.

This bonus increases every time the wrestler scores a kachikoshi with larger kachikoshi giving larger raises. Special increases in this bonus are also awarded for winning the top division championship with an extra large increase for a "perfect" championship victory with no losses , and also for scoring a gold star or kinboshi an upset of a yokozuna by a maegashira.

San'yaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna belt worn in their ring entering ceremony.

Also, prize money is given to the winner of each divisional championship, which increases from , yen for a jonokuchi victory up to 10,, yen for winning the top division.

Individual top division matches can also be sponsored by companies. In such cases, the winner of the bout typically receives around 30, yen net per sponsor out of the sponsors' contribution of 60, yen—much of the remainder goes in paying the wrestler's tax on the prize.

Sumo is also practised as an amateur sport, with participants in college, high school, and grade school in Japan.

In addition to college and school tournaments, open amateur tournaments are also held. The sport at this level is stripped of most of the ceremony.

The most successful amateur wrestlers in Japan usually college champions can be allowed to enter professional sumo at makushita third division rather than from the very bottom of the ladder.

This rank is called makushita tsukedashi , and is currently makushita 10 or 15 depending on the level of amateur success achieved.

Many of the current top division wrestlers entered professional sumo by this route. All amateur athletes entering the professional ranks must be under 23 to satisfy the entry, except those who qualify for makushita tsukedashi , who may be up to The International Sumo Federation was established to encourage the sport's development worldwide, including holding international championships.

A key aim of the federation is to have sumo recognized as an Olympic sport. Amateur sumo clubs are gaining in popularity in the United States, with competitions regularly being held in major cities across the country.

Now, however, the sport has grown beyond the sphere of Japanese diaspora and athletes come from a variety of ethnic, cultural, and sporting backgrounds.

Amateur sumo is particularly strong in Europe. Many athletes come to the sport from a background in judo , freestyle wrestling , or other grappling sports such as sambo.

Some Eastern European athletes have been successful enough to be scouted into professional sumo in Japan, much like their Japanese amateur counterparts.

Brazil is another center of amateur sumo, introduced by Japanese immigrants who arrived during the first half of the twentieth century.

The first Brazilian sumo tournament was held in Sumo wrestlers wear Mawashi which is essentially a thick foot-long belt, that they tie in knots in the back.

During matches, the wrestler will grab onto the other wrestler's Mawashi and use it to help them and make moves during a match.

The different Mawashi that the wrestlers wear differentiate their rank. Top rated wrestlers wear different colors of silk Mawashi during tournament, while lower rated wrestlers are limited to just black cotton.

Sumo wrestlers wear Mawashi because there are fewer ways to cheat when you wear one. Their hair is put in what they call a topknot, and they use wax to get it to stay.

Wax is applied to sumo wrestlers' hair daily by sumo hairdressers Tokoyama. Once a wrestler joins a stable, they are required to grow out their hair in order to form a topknot.

Outside of tournaments and practices, in daily life, sumo wrestlers are required to wear traditional Japanese clothes. What you can wear in public is also determined by rank.

Lower rated wrestlers must wear a Yukata at all times, even in winter, where higher rated wrestlers have more choice in what they wear.

Partial squat before engaging. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sumo disambiguation.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Japanese martial art. Main article: Professional sumo divisions. Main article: Honbasho.

Play media. Japan portal Society portal Martial arts portal. Den Erfolgreichsten eröffnet sich danach die Perspektive auf einen Funktionärsposten und die Tätigkeit als Schiedsrichter oder Trainer, andere verdienen ihren Lebensunterhalt in der auf Chankonabe spezialisierten Gastronomie siehe auch nächster Absatz.

Um ein hohes Körpergewicht zu erreichen, wird eine spezielle Mastkur durchgeführt. Dazu gehört, dass nach dem morgendlichen Aufstehen mit nüchternem Magen trainiert wird.

Ein Mittagsschlaf nach dem Essen soll dabei die Gewichtszunahme begünstigen. Deshalb müssen die Kämpfer über ausreichend Schnellkraft und Gewandtheit verfügen.

Nicht wenige von ihnen beherrschen beispielsweise den Spagat. Diese Namen haben oft eine Bedeutung oder sind die Namen früherer Kämpfer.

Ringer des gleichen Heya oder Ringerstalls sind dann an den gleich beginnenden Namen erkennbar. Im Laufe der letzten Jahrzehnte ist das durchschnittliche Körpergewicht der Ringer dabei stetig gestiegen.

Dennoch steigt die Anzahl von Ausländern ständig. Auf der Rangliste zum Turnier im Mai waren fünf der zehn höchstrangigen Rikishi im Ausland geboren worden, so viele wie nie zuvor.

Zwar waren selbst US-amerikanische Ringer relativ früh in der Makuuchi-Division akzeptiert, die Ernennung eines nicht-japanischstämmigen Yokozuna stellte aber dennoch einen bedeutenden Schnitt dar, weil an Inhaber dieses Titels jedenfalls nach offiziellem Verständnis besondere charakterliche Anforderungen gestellt werden, deren Erfüllbarkeit durch Gaijin zunächst umstritten war.

Noch in den ern gab es um die Nichtbeförderung Konishikis einen Skandal wegen angeblicher rassistischer Beweggründe. Mittlerweile hat sich die liberalere Ansicht jedoch durchgesetzt und ausländischstämmige Yokozuna sind eher die Regel als die Ausnahme.

Selbst so nebensächlich erscheinende Dinge wie ihre Alltagskleidung sind genau vorgeschrieben. Dabei greift der Verband teilweise erheblich in die persönliche Freiheit der Rikishi ein.

Beispielsweise wurde als Reaktion auf einen Autounfall, den ein Kämpfer verursachte, eine Bestimmung erlassen, die es den Ringern untersagt, ein Automobil zu führen.

Dabei haben die Himmelsrichtungen nichts mit der Herkunft der Kämpfer zu tun, sondern bezeichnen den Gebäudeflügel, in dem ihre Kabinen liegen.

Die Kämpfer der unteren Ligen sind ebenfalls nach Leistungsniveau durchnummeriert. Die Kämpfer der letztgenannten, zweithöchsten Liga bilden mit denen der Makuuchi-Division die Sekitori.

Er wird von lästigen Arbeiten befreit, hat Anspruch auf einen Tsukebito Gehilfe und ein eigenes Zimmer im Heya , er unterliegt auch weniger restriktiven Regeln und wird wesentlich besser bezahlt.

Auf Turnieren oder Basho wird um Auf- und Abstiege gekämpft. Wenn ein Ringer mehr Siege als Niederlagen erreicht kachi-koshi , steigt er in der Banzuke genannten Rangliste auf.

Bei mehr Niederlagen als Siegen make-koshi steigt er ab. Der Titel eines Yokozuna wird auf Lebenszeit verliehen. Jedes Turnier beginnt an einem Sonntag und endet an einem solchen.

An diesem Tag finden oft die alles entscheidenden Kämpfe statt. Wenn zwei oder mehr Kämpfer gleichauf liegen, wird an diesem Tag zwischen ihnen um den Turniersieg gerungen.

Die Rikishi aller unteren Ligen kämpfen nur an sieben Tagen des Basho, während die Sekitori an allen 15 zu ihrem täglichen Kampf antreten müssen.

Erst am Nachmittag treten die Kämpfer der Makuuchi an. Der oder die Yokozuna halten darauf noch ihre eigene Zeremonie ab.

Danach finden die ersten Begegnungen statt. Auch hier kämpfen die rangniedrigsten Ringer zuerst. Am Ende des letzten Tages eines Basho findet eine Siegerehrung statt.

Zwar sind die nach Rang abgestuften Gehälter öffentlich festgelegt und lagen zwischen monatlich 1. So erhält jeder Turniersieger einen einmaligen Bonus von beispielsweise Diese werden unmittelbar nach dem Kampf dem Sieger in Umschlägen übergeben; die Höhe einer Prämie ist auf Dazu kommen noch eine ganze Reihe weiterer Boni, die sich meist in ihrer Höhe nach dem Rang des Ringers richten.

Die Angehörigen der Ligen unter Juryo, d. Anfänger, die in der untersten Division kämpfen, erhielten umgerechnet Euro, während Makushita -Ringer etwa 1.

Alle anderen lagen irgendwo dazwischen. In der zweiten Hälfte des Führende Nationen sind hier neben Japan vor allem Deutschland sowie diverse osteuropäische Staaten.

Insgesamt 77 nationale Verbände sind hier organisiert Stand September Hübner am 6. Seit dem 8.

Doch es gibt auch wesentliche Unterschiede. Einer betrifft die Durchführung der Wettkämpfe. Diese rationale Auffassung spiegelt sich auch in der Kleiderordnung wider.

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  1. Hat nicht ganz gut verstanden.

  2. Wacker, welche nötige Wörter..., der glänzende Gedanke

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